Diabetes Type 2
More than 90 percent of people with diabetes have type 2. In this disease, the body loses its ability to make efficient use of insulin to turn glucose (sugar) into energy. Sugar buildup in the blood can cause both short-term and long-term problems.
Diabetes Type 1
In type 1 diabetes, cells of the pancreas that produce insulin are destroyed. Without injections of insulin, the body of a person with type 1 diabetes cannot turn blood glucose into energy.
Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that develops in some women during pregnancy, usually toward the end of pregnancy. It affects approximately 3 to 5 percent of all pregnant women.
Prediabetes: Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose
for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion )
Prediabetes is a term used to distinguish people who are at increased risk of developing diabetes. People with prediabetes have impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Some people may have both IFG and IGT.
IFG is a condition in which the fasting blood sugar level is elevated (100 to 125 milligrams per deciliter or mg/dL) after an overnight fast but is not high enough to be classified as diabetes.
IGT is a condition in which the blood sugar level is elevated (140 to 199 mg/dL) after a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test, but is not high enough to be classified as diabetes.
In a cross-section of U.S. adults aged 40-74 years who were tested from 1988 to 1994, 33.8% had IFG, 15.4% had IGT, and 40.1% had prediabetes (IGT or IFG or both). Were these percentages applied to the 2000 U.S. population, about 35 million adults aged 40-74 would have IFG, 16 million would have IGT, and 41 million would have prediabetes.
Progression to diabetes among those with prediabetes is not inevitable. Studies suggest that weight loss and increased physical activity among people with prediabetes prevent or delay diabetes and may return blood glucose levels to normal.
People with prediabetes are already at increased risk for other adverse health outcomes such as heart disease and stroke.
Useful Information & Resources:
medicare.gov- (Official Medicare Site)
Diabetes Screening, Supplies, and Self-Management Training
For people with Medicare at risk for getting diabetes, Medicare covers a screening blood sugar test to check for diabetes.
You are considered at risk if you have any of the following: high blood pressure, dyslipidemia (history of abnormal cholesterol and triglyceride levels), obesity, or a history of high blood sugar.
Other risk factors may also qualify you for this test and based on the results, you may be eligible for up to two screenings each year. Medicare also covers certain supplies and self-management training to find and treat diabetes.
Medicare covers the cost of diabetes testing supplies for qualified beneficiaries, but co-payments and deductibles apply. Testing supplies include a glucose meter, test strips, lancing devices, lancets, control solution, and meter batteries. Insulin pumps and A1c test kits may also be covered. You pay 20% of the Medicare-approved amount (after the yearly Part B deductible)
diabetes.org - The American Diabetes Association
Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches and other food into energy needed for daily life. The cause of diabetes continues to be a mystery, although both genetics and environmental factors such as obesity and lack of exercise appear to play roles.
There are 18.2 million people in the United States, or 6.3% of the population, who have diabetes. While an estimated 13 million have been diagnosed with diabetes, unfortunately, 5.2 million people (or nearly one-third) are unaware that they have the disease.
In order to determine whether or not a patient has pre-diabetes or diabetes, health care providers conduct a Fasting Plasma Glucose Test (FPG) or an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). Either test can be used to diagnose pre-diabetes or diabetes. The American Diabetes Association recommends the FPG because it is easier, faster, and less expensive to perform. With the FPG test, a fasting blood glucose level between 100 and 125 mg/dl signals pre-diabetes. A person with a fasting blood glucose level of 126 mg/dl or higher has diabetes.
In the OGTT test, a person's blood glucose level is measured after a fast and two hours after drinking a glucose-rich beverage. If the two-hour blood glucose level is between 140 and 199 mg/dl, the person tested has pre-diabetes. If the two-hour blood glucose level is at 200 mg/dl or higher, the person tested has diabetes.
AADEnet.org - American
Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE)
Founded in 1973, the American Association of Diabetes Educators is a
multi-disciplinary professional membership organization dedicated to advancing
the practice of diabetes self-management training and care as integral
components of health care for persons with diabetes, and lifestyle management
for the prevention of diabetes.
FamilyDoctor.org - American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP)
This Web site is operated by the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), a national medical organizations representing more than 93,700 family physicians, family practice residents and medical students. All of the information on this site has been written and reviewed by physicians and patient education professionals at the AAFP. Visit the AAFP Web site to learn more about the AAFP.
cadre-diabetes.org - CADRE (Council
for the Advancement of Diabetes)
In recent years, diabetes has reached epidemic proportions, affecting an estimated 17 million men, women, and children in the United States. It is one of the most heavily researched diseases of our time, yet it remains an incurable, progressive illness—the seventh leading cause of death in the United States—with devastating complications such as blindness, neuropathy, and cardiovascular disorders.
The past 10 years, however, have seen a revolution in diabetes care that will continue well into the 21st century. New pharmacological interventions, including new oral therapies and insulin formulations, noninvasive glucose monitors, and transplant procedures have recently become available or are just on the horizon, offering hope for sustainable treatment.
With the advent of these therapeutic strategies, the Council for the Advancement of Diabetes Research and Education (CADRE) was launched to provide educational programs and research grants to further expand our knowledge of this debilitating illness and its treatment.
defeatdiabetes.org - The Defeat Diabetes Foundation, Inc.
The Defeat Diabetes Foundation, Inc. was incorporated November 21, 1991 under the laws of the State of Florida as a non-profit corporation. The mission of Defeat Diabetes Foundation is to inform, educate and alert the general public, diabetics, pre-diabetics and elected officials about the disease, its prevention and the consequences of undiagnosed and/or poorly managed diabetes and to provide accurate, up-to-date and practical information on the treatment and self-management of the disease. The Foundation is supported by concerned individuals and is operated by contracted, salaried and volunteer services. Substantially all of its revenue is received as contributions.
diabetes.ca - Canadian Diabetes Association
History Timeline of Diabetes
Charles Best, the co-discover of insulin, had a vision. Very early on he saw that the growing number of Canadians with diabetes were going to require an organization to serve their needs.
In the late 1940's, the Diabetic Association of Ontario was formed. As the provinces and territories formed their own associations, it became clear that if the provincial branches combined their resources they could more effectively serve their membership. This culminated in the formation of Canadian Diabetes Association in 1953. Established over 50 years ago, the Canadian Diabetes Association is a charitable organization that has grown to include a presence in more than 150 communities across the country. The Canadian Diabetes Association promotes the health of Canadians through diabetes research, education, service and advocacy.
jdrf.org – Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation
If you or someone you love has recently been diagnosed with type 1 (juvenile) diabetes, we at JDRF can help. Our Online Diabetes Support Team (ODST) is made up of JDRF volunteers who have “been there” and are available to offer you immediate, one-on-one support. We also provide loads of practical info about diabetes and its management.
idf.org - The International Diabetes Federation
(IDF) is the only global advocate for people with diabetes and their healthcare providers. We work together with our member associations to enhance the lives of people with diabetes worldwide. We are a non-governmental organization in official relations with the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization. Our mission is to promote diabetes care, prevention and a cure worldwide.